Most of the four observers obtained really specimens, especially those from close by the fresh new hybrid area

Most of the four observers obtained really specimens, especially those from close by the fresh new hybrid area

Morphological contrasting

We scored adult sample skins maintained throughout the STRIBC (N =67), the latest American Museum out-of Absolute History (AMNH, Letter =25), in addition to All of us Federal Art gallery bird range (USNM, Letter = 10) away from Costa Rica, Panama, and you will Colombia for each and every out-of about three phenotypic characteristics: i) dorsal plumage, ii) ventral plumage, and you can iii) face protect ornamentation. Adopting the , MJM, Sel-, or over to 3 almost every other observers (pick Additional document step 1: Dining table S1) obtained for each bird alone with the a scale out-of 0 – step 1, where 0 depicted an effective phenotypically natural Jacana spinosa, and you can step 1 depicted a beneficial phenotypically absolute Jacana jacana (considering reviews which have skins from beyond your get in touch with area), therefore we averaged the results for each and every trait while the phenotypic hybrid list for every single specimen . Specimens which have phenotypic hybrid indicator below 0.10 had been categorized just like the «pure» spinosa, while a list of 0.ninety or higher are obtained as «pure» jacana. A score between 0.ten and you will 0.25 was categorized given that «spinosa-like», whereas a catalog anywhere between 0.75 and 0.ninety are classified as the «jacana-like». Specimens that have indices ranging from 0.twenty-five and 0.75 have been categorized because «hybrids».

Hereditary study

I sequenced a great 652 base partners fragment of mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I gene (COI: the latest DNA barcode fragment) out-of 59 Panamanian jacanas, as well as several specimens from east Honduras delivered to the analysis of the J. Klicka in addition to Marjorie Barrick Art gallery. We chose it gene when planning on taking advantageous asset of present sequence data on Genbank getting jacanas out-of varied geographical regions, that happen to be along with set in the fresh dataset (N = 10). Lab actions realize simple strategies which were discussed someplace else . We attempted however, were not able generate series data away from bottom mat extractions from the Smith and you will Emlen series of specimens.

The new COI research were used to help you imagine the fresh new hereditary distinctiveness of both jacana species and you will infer enough time regarding speciation between J. spinosa and you may J. jacana, and to evaluate the knowledge to which topography limitations gene flow inside the jacanas (i.age. isolation-by-distance). I generated average-joining network in the PopART . We put Mega to calculate the common range making use of the HKY brand of unit development to evaluate divergence when you look at the jacanas some other avian variety where genetic length could have been determined with the HKY design .

We checked on effectation of geographical point towards genetic differences (we.e., separation because of the point) via a Mantel sample accompanied throughout the program Alleles in space , and that measures up hereditary and you will geographical distances certainly anybody in the place of communities. For J. spinosa and you will J. jacana mtDNA series establishes, i coordinated uncorrected pairwise sequence divergence having pairwise geographical range to possess all of the you can easily pairs. Need for new correlation was influenced by contrasting the newest observed relationship so you can arbitrary correlations centered on ten,100 permutations.

So you can fit new mtDNA-depending analyses out of hereditary introgression over the jacana hybrid zone, i sequenced two autosomal introns (gapdh eleven: , and 10551: ) having STRIBC specimens amassed all over Panama. According to a primary comparison away from succession version out-of a few trials from for every single geographical endpoint (outside of the crossbreed area) of our own sampling structure, we recognized a single nucleotide polymorphism each intron: gapdh step 3- anti-feel standing 136 (cytosine-thymine: C-T changeover), and you will 10551 updates 153 (adenine-guanine: A-Grams change). Positions try in accordance with aimed sequences of any intron on J. spinosa take to MJM8238 (Genbank accessions: gapdh: KM891734, 10551: KM891735).

Cline figure analyses

We estimated the shape of the phenotypic and genotypic clines using ClineFit , which applies the cline fitting formulas developed by Szymura and Barton . The shape of a cline is determined by three formulas. The first formula (1) defines a symmetric S-shaped curve around the center of the hybrid zone, and relies on two parameters: c – for the center of the curve, and w – which is 1/maximum slope of the cline, and represents the cline width. Two additional formulae define the cline tails (2,3) and add four additional parameters: z L and z R , which represent the distance from c to a vertical asymptote for the exponential decay of allele frequencies to the left and right sides of the hybrid zone, while ? L and ? R define the rates of this exponential decay relative to the shape of the central cline (1).

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